Chemokines are small proteins that control several tissue functions, including cell recruitment and activation under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. CXCL8 (interleukin-8) is a member of the chemokine family that acts on CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL7 are also ELR+ chemokine members that bind to these receptors, especially CXCR2. The majority of studies on the biology of CXCL8 and their receptors have been performed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. However, many other cells express CXCR1/CXCR2, including epithelial, endothelial, fibroblasts and neurons, contributing to the biological effects of CXCL8. There is substantial amount of experimental data suggesting that CXCL8 and receptors contribute to elimination of pathogens, but may also contribute significantly to disease-associated processes, including tissue injury, fibrosis, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Here, we discuss the biology of CXCL8 family and the potential therapeutic use of antagonists or blockers of these molecules in the context of organ-specific diseases.