Background: Nutrition is linked strongly with health outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and health outcomes in persons with CKD.
Study design: Observational cohort study.
Setting & participants: 3,972 participants with CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albumin-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at baseline) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a prospective cohort study of 30,239 black and white adults at least 45 years of age.
Predictors: 5 empirically derived dietary patterns identified by factor analysis: "convenience" (Chinese and Mexican foods, pizza, and other mixed dishes), "plant-based" (fruits and vegetables), "sweets/fats" (sugary foods), "Southern" (fried foods, organ meats, and sweetened beverages), and "alcohol/salads" (alcohol, green-leafy vegetables, and salad dressing).
Outcomes: All-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Results: 816 deaths and 141 ESRD events were observed over approximately 6 years of follow-up. There were no statistically significant associations of convenience, sweets/fats, or alcohol/salads pattern scores with all-cause mortality after multivariable adjustment. In Cox regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, energy intake, comorbid conditions, and baseline kidney function, higher plant-based pattern scores (indicating greater consistency with the pattern) were associated with lower risk of mortality (HR comparing fourth to first quartile, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97), whereas higher Southern pattern scores were associated with greater risk of mortality (HR comparing fourth to first quartile, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92). There were no associations of dietary patterns with incident ESRD in multivariable-adjusted models.
Limitations: Missing dietary pattern data, potential residual confounding from lifestyle factors.
Conclusions: A Southern dietary pattern rich in processed and fried foods was associated independently with mortality in persons with CKD. In contrast, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables appeared to be protective.
Keywords: Dietary pattern; chronic kidney disease (CKD); disease progression; kidney failure; modifiable risk factor; mortality risk; nutrition.
Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.