The interplay between the immune response and the gut microbiota is complex. Although it is well-established that the gut microbiota is essential for the proper development of the immune system, recent evidence indicates that the cells of the immune system also influence the composition of the gut microbiota. This interaction can have important consequences for the development of inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune diseases and allergy, and the specific mechanisms by which the gut commensals drive the development of different types of immune responses are beginning to be understood. Furthermore, sex hormones are now thought to play a novel role in this complex relationship, and collaborate with both the gut microbiota and immune system to influence the development of autoimmune disease. In this review, we will focus on recent studies that have transformed our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiota in inflammatory responses.
Keywords: Androgen; Autoimmunity; DC; Gut microbiota; SCFA; Treg.
Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.