Antioxidant intervention attenuates oxidative stress in children and teenagers with Down syndrome

Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Jun;35(6):1228-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.03.013. Epub 2014 Mar 28.


We previously demonstrated that systemic oxidative stress is present in Down syndrome (DS) patients. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant status in the peripheral blood of DS children and teenagers comparing such status before and after an antioxidant supplementation. Oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated in the blood of DS patients (n=21) before and after a daily antioxidant intervention (vitamin E 400mg, C 500 mg) during 6 months. Healthy children (n=18) without DS were recruited as control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid, vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and protein carbonyls (PC) were measured. Before the antioxidant therapy, DS patients presented decreased GST activity and GSH depletion; elevated SOD, CAT, GR, GGT and MPO activities; increased uric acid levels; while GPx and G6PD activities as well as vitamin E and TBARS levels were unaltered. After the antioxidant supplementation, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GGT and MPO activities were downregulated, while TBARS contents were strongly decreased in DS. Also, the antioxidant therapy did not change G6PD and GST activities as well as uric acid and PC levels, while it significantly increased GSH and vitamin E levels in DS patients. Our results clearly demonstrate that the antioxidant intervention with vitamins E and C attenuated the systemic oxidative damage present in DS patients.

Keywords: Antioxidant therapy; Down syndrome; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Biomarkers
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Catalase / drug effects
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Down Syndrome / enzymology*
  • Female
  • Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase / drug effects
  • Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Glutathione / drug effects
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / drug effects
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Reductase / drug effects
  • Glutathione Reductase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / drug effects
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Peroxidase / drug effects
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Protein Carbonylation / drug effects
  • Superoxide Dismutase / drug effects
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism
  • Uric Acid / metabolism
  • Vitamin E / metabolism
  • Vitamin E / pharmacology*
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase / drug effects
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • Vitamin E
  • Uric Acid
  • Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase
  • Catalase
  • Peroxidase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione Reductase
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Glutathione
  • Ascorbic Acid