Objectives: Although commonly reported as single-centre experiences, redo aortic valve replacement (RAVR) has overall acceptable results. Nevertheless, trans-catheter aortic valve replacement has recently questioned the efficacy of RAVR.
Methods: Early-to-mid-term results and determinants of mortality in 711 cases of RAVR from seven European institutions were assessed in the entire population and in selected high-risk subgroups [elderly >75 years, urgent/emergent procedures, preoperative New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional Class IV and endocarditis].
Results: Hospital mortality was 5.1%, major re-entry cardiovascular complications (MRCVCs) 4.9%, low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) 15.3%, stroke 6.6%, acute respiratory failure (ARF) 10.6%, acute renal insufficiency (ARI) 19.3% and need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) 7.2%, transfusions 66.9% and for permanent pacemaker (PMK) 12.7%. Mid-term survival, freedom from acute heart failure (AHF), reinterventions, stroke and thrombo-embolisms were 77.2 ± 2.7, 84.4 ± 2.6, 97.2 ± 0.8, 97.2 ± 0.9 and 96.3 ± 1.2%, respectively; 87.5% of patients were in NYHA functional Class I-II. Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction of <30% [odds ratio (OR) 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-35.6], MRCVCs (OR 20.9, 95% CI 5.6-78.3), cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1), perioperative LCOS (OR 17.2, 95% CI 5.1-57.4) and ARI (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-18.1) predicted hospital death. Endocarditis (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.9-19.1), preoperative NYHA functional Class IV (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.0-24.0), combined RAVR + mitral surgery (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) and AHF at follow-up (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-6.0) predicted late death at the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Elderly >75 years had similar hospital mortality (P = 0.06) and major morbidity, except for a higher need for PMK (P = 0.03), as well as comparable mid-term survival (P = 0.89), freedom from AHF (P = 0.81), reinterventions (P = 0.63), stroke (P = 0.21) and thrombo-embolisms (P = 0.09). Urgent/emergent indication resulted in higher hospital death, LCOS, transfusions, MRCVCs, intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP), stroke, prolonged (>48 h) ventilation, pneumonia, ARI, CRRT, lower mid-term survival and freedom from AHF (P ≤ 0.03). Preoperative NYHA functional Class IV correlated with higher LCOS, IABP, prolonged ventilation, pneumonia, ARF, ARI, CRRT and MRCVCs and lower mid-term survival, freedom from AHF, reinterventions and stroke (P ≤ 0.02). Endocarditis demonstrated higher hospital mortality, MRCVCs, LCOS, IABP, stroke, ARF, prolonged intubation, pneumonia, ARI, CRRT, transfusions and PMK and lower mid-term survival and freedom from AHF and reinterventions (P ≤ 0.04).
Conclusions: RAVR achieves overall satisfactory results. Baseline risk factors and perioperative complications strongly affect outcomes and mandate improvements in perioperative management. New emerging strategies might be considered in selected high-risk cases.
Keywords: Aortic valve replacement; Emergent cardiac surgery; Endocarditis; Prosthetic endocarditis; Redo.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.