Background: Hypertriglyceridemia induces acute recurrent pancreatitis, but its role in the etiology of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of 7 patients with CP due to type 1 hyperlipidemia compared to CP patients with other or undefined etiological factors.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of 7 CP patients with type 1 hyperlipidemia compared to CP patients without hypertriglyceridemia. These 7 patients had multiple episodes of acute pancreatitis and had features of CP on abdominal CT, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and/or endoscopic ultrasonography.
Results: All CP patients were classified into two groups: a group with type 1 hyperlipidemia (n=7) and a group with other etiologies (n=58). The mean triglyceride level was 2323+/-894 mg/dL in the first group. Age at the diagnosis of CP in the first group was significantly younger than that in the second group (16.5+/-5.9 vs 48.3+/-13.5, P<0.001). The number of episodes of acute pancreatitis in the first group was significantly higher than that in the second group (15.0+/-6.8 vs 4.0+/-4.6, P=0.011). The number of splenic vein thrombosis in the first group was significantly higher than that in the second group (4/7 vs 9/58, P=0.025). Logistic regression analysis found that younger age was an independent predictor of CP due to hypertriglyceridemia (r=0.418, P=0.000).
Conclusions: Type 1 hyperlipidemia appears to be an etiological factor even for a minority of patients with CP. It manifests at a younger age, and the course of the disease might be severe.