Aim: Intravenous diuretics at relatively high doses are currently used for treating acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, the existence of harmful side effects diuretic-related, such as electrolyte abnormalities, symptomatic hypotension and marked neuro-hormonal activation have led researchers to implement alternative therapeutic tools such as isolated ultrafiltration (IUF).
Methods: Our study aimed to compare intravenous diuretics vs. IUF as regards their respective efficacy and safety in ADHF patients through systematic review and meta-analysis of data derived from relevant randomized controlled trials.
Results: 6 studies grouping a total of 477 patients were included in the systematic review. By contrast, data from only three studies were pooled for the meta-analysis, because of different adopted outcomes or marked dissimilarities in the data presentation . Weight loss at 48 h was greater in IUF group compared to the diuretics group [weighted mean difference (WMD)=1.77 kg; 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 kg; P<0.001)]. Similarly, greater fluid loss at 48 h was found in IUF group in comparison with diuretics group (WMD=1.2 liters; 95%CI: 0.73-1.67 liters; P< 0.001). In contrast, the probability of exhibiting worsening renal function (WRF), i.e., increase in serum creatinine > 0.3 mg/dl at 48 hours, was similar to the one found in the diuretics group (OR=1.33; 95% CI: 0.81-2.16 P=0.26).
Conclusion: On the basis of this meta-analysis, IUF induced greater weight loss and larger fluid removal compared to iv diuretics in ADHF patients, whereas the probability of developing WRF was not significantly different in the comparison between iv diuretics and IUF.