Background: Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM) previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation.
Materials and methods: In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA). The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm). The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode). Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm(2). Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student's t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: The mean OTM were 5.68 ± 1.21 mm in the control group and 6.0 ± 0.99 mm in the laser irradiated teeth with no statistically significant differences(P > 0.75). The mean root resorption was 1.61 ± 0.43 mm(2) and 0.18 ± 0.07 mm(2) in the control and experimental groups respectively being significantly lower in the laser irradiated teeth (P < 0.0001).
Conclusion: The findings of the present study show that GaAlAs irradiation together with the application of DFDBA led to limited amount of the stimulated OTM. The laser beam irradiation in combination with alloplastic materials used for socket preservation could reduce the degree of root resorption significantly.
Keywords: Low-level laser; orthodontic tooth movements; root resorption.