The Impact of Brazil's Bolsa Família Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Children's Health Care Utilization and Health Outcomes

BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2014 Apr 1;14:10. doi: 10.1186/1472-698X-14-10.

Abstract

Background: Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs provide poor families with cash conditional on investments in health and education. Brazil's Bolsa Família program began in 2003 and is currently the largest CCT program in the world. This community-based study examines the impact of Bolsa Família on child health in a slum community in a large urban center.

Methods: In 2010, detailed household surveys were conducted with randomly selected Bolsa Família beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries in a Brazilian slum community of approximately 14,000 inhabitants in a large urban center. 567 families (with 1,266 children) were interviewed. Propensity score methods were used to control for differences between beneficiary and non-beneficiary children to estimate program impacts on health care utilization and health outcomes.

Results: Bolsa Família has increased the odds of children's visits to the health post for preventive services. In children under age seven, Bolsa Família was associated with increased odds for growth monitoring (OR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.9-5.1), vaccinations (OR = 2.8; 95% CI 1.4-5.4), and checkups (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.98-2.5), and with the number of growth monitoring visits (β = 0.6; p = 0.049) and checkups (β = 0.2; p = 0.068). There were positive spillover effects on older siblings (ages 7-17) no longer required to meet the health conditionalities. Bolsa Família increased their odds for growth monitoring (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.9) and checkups (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 0.9-3.2) and improved psychosocial health (β = 2.6; p = 0.007).

Conclusions: Bolsa Família has improved health care utilization, especially for services related to the health conditionalites, and there were positive spillover effects on older siblings. The findings of this study are promising, but they also suggest that further improvements in health may depend on the quality of health care services provided, the scope of services linked to the health conditionalities, and coordination with other social safety net programs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Brazil
  • Child
  • Child Health Services / statistics & numerical data*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cough / epidemiology
  • Data Collection
  • Diarrhea / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Fever / epidemiology
  • Government Programs*
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Poverty Areas
  • Program Evaluation
  • Propensity Score
  • Public Assistance*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Urban Population