Early impact of sequential introduction of 7-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on IPD in Israeli children <5 years: an active prospective nationwide surveillance

Vaccine. 2014 Jun 5;32(27):3452-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.065. Epub 2014 Mar 30.


Background: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to the Israeli national immunization plan (NIP) in July 2009 (administered at age 2, 4 and 12 months), with a fast reduction of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by PCV7 serotypes. Starting in November 2010, PCV13 gradually replaced PCV7.

Aim: To report the impact of PCV7/PCV13 sequential introduction on IPD in Israeli children <5 years.

Methods: An ongoing nationwide, prospective, population-based, active surveillance. All IPD episodes (Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid) from July 2004 through June 2013 were included.

Results: Overall, 2670 IPD episodes were recorded. Incidence of IPD caused by PCV7+6A serotypes during the PCV13 period vs. pre-PCV period decreased by 95% (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.05; 95% CI=0.03-0.09). This reduction was observed in a two-step manner: 90% in the PCV7-period and further 5% in the PCV13-period. The rates of IPD caused by the 5 additional PCV13-serotypes (1, 3, 5, 7F, 19A; 5VT) increased initially by 47%, but subsequently decreased by 79%, resulting in an overall 70% reduction during the entire study period (IRR=0.30; 0.21-0.44). A two-fold increase in non-PCV13 serotypes IPD was observed (IRR=2.43; 1.73-3.66). In total, a 63% reduction of all-serotype IPD episodes was observed in children <5 years (69% and 48% in children <2 and 2-4 years old, respectively).

Conclusions: After initiation of PCV NIP, a rapid and substantial 2-step IPD reduction was observed in children <5 years. The serotype-specific rate reduction reflected the sequential introduction of PCV7/PCV13.

Keywords: Children; Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD); Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); Surveillance.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Israel / epidemiology
  • Pneumococcal Infections / epidemiology*
  • Pneumococcal Infections / prevention & control
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sentinel Surveillance
  • Vaccines, Conjugate / administration & dosage


  • 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine
  • Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Conjugate