Hydroxy-safflor yellow A attenuates Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced inflammation by modulating the JAK2/STAT3/NF-κB pathway

Brain Res. 2014 May 14;1563:72-80. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.03.036. Epub 2014 Mar 29.


Beta-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). Anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA) on Aβ1-42-induced inflammation in AD mice was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. Aβ1-42 was injected into bilateral hippocampi of mice to induce AD models in vivo. Spatial learning and memory of mice were investigated by the Morris water maze test. Activated microglia and astrocytes were examined by immunofluorescence staining for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The mRNA of inflammatory cytokines were measured using real-time PCR. NF-κB p65 translocation was analyzed by western blotting and immunostaining. IκB and phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 were tested by western blotting. The results showed that HSYA ameliorated the memory deficits in Aβ1-42-induced AD mice. HSYA suppressed Aβ1-42-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes and reduced the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. HSYA up-regulated the JAK2/STAT3 pathway and inhibits the activation of NF-κB signaling pathways. Pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 by AG490 reversed the inactivation of p65 and anti-inflammatory effects of HSYA. In conclusion, these results suggest that HSYA protects Aβ1-42-induced AD model through inhibiting inflammatory response, which may involve the JAK2/STAT3/NF-κB pathway.

Keywords: Alzheimer׳s disease; Beta-amyloid; Hydroxy-safflor yellow A; Inflammation; JAK2/STAT3; NF-κB pathway.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism*
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chalcone / analogs & derivatives*
  • Chalcone / pharmacology
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Janus Kinase 2 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Microglia / drug effects*
  • Microglia / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Peptide Fragments / toxicity*
  • Quinones / pharmacology*
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*
  • Spatial Learning / drug effects


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Quinones
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • amyloid beta-protein (1-42)
  • hydroxysafflor yellow A
  • Chalcone
  • Janus Kinase 2