Australian sexually transmissible infection and HIV testing guidelines for asymptomatic men who have sex with men 2014: a review of the evidence

Sex Health. 2014 Jul;11(3):217-29. doi: 10.1071/SH14003.


Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Australia and overseas are disproportionately affected by sexually transmissible infections (STIs), including HIV. Many STIs are asymptomatic, so regular testing and management of asymptomatic MSM remains an important component of effective control. We reviewed articles from January 2009-May 2013 to inform the 2014 update of the 2010 Australian testing guidelines for asymptomatic MSM. Key changes include: a recommendation for pharyngeal chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) testing, use of nucleic acid amplification tests alone for gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) testing (without gonococcal culture), more frequent (up to four times a year) gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing in sexually active HIV-positive MSM, time required since last void for chlamydia first-void urine collection specified at 20min, urethral meatal swab as an alternative to first-void urine for urethral chlamydia testing, and the use of electronic reminders to increase STI and HIV retesting rates among MSM.