Objectives: The objectives were to detect and compare the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4 and nuclear factor kappa B in mucosal lesions of chronic otitis.
Methods: Fifty-five tissue samples obtained from children and adults operated on for otitis were investigated by semiquantitative immunohistochemical methods using polyclonal antibodies for TLR 2, 4 and NFkappaB. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Kendall's tau rank correlation tests were used.
Results: Stronger expression of TLR2, 4 was found in inflamed mucosa than in the control for children and adults (TLR2: H = 23.86, P < .0011; TLR4: H = 22.80, P < .00 1) (TLR2: H = 17.53, P < .001; TLR4: H = 11.99, P < .001); in cholesteatoma perimatrix compared to tubotympanic lesions in children (TLR2: H = 11.06, P = .004; TLR4: H = 10.61, P = .005) and adults (TLR2: H = 10.73, P = .013; TLR4: H = 9.65, P = .021). No differences were found in NFkB expression (H = 0.042, P = .99). Significant correlations were found for all pairs of molecules in cholesteatoma and tubotympanic mucosa of adults (TLR2, 4: P = .002, P < .001; TLR2-NfkappaB: P = .032, P = .021; TLR4-NFkB: P = .035, P = .0013), only TLR4-NFkappaB in tubotympanic otitis of children (P = .026).
Conclusions: Toll-like receptors 2,4 and NFkB mediate inflammation in cholesteatoma and mucosal lesions oftubotympanic otitis in children and adults. Significant correlations betweenall pairs of molecules in all samples were detected in adults, but only TLR4-NFkappaB in children.