Recent developments in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration

J Clin Invest. 2014 Apr;124(4):1430-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI71029. Epub 2014 Apr 1.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of visual loss in the elderly, with increasing prevalence due to increasing life expectancy. While the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy has improved outcomes, there are still major unmet needs and gaps in the understanding of underlying biological processes. These include early, intermediate, and atrophic disease stages. Recent studies have assessed therapeutic approaches addressing various disease-associated pathways, including complement inhibitors. Drug-delivery aspects are also relevant, as many agents have to be administered repeatedly. Herein, relevant pathogenetic factors and underlying mechanisms as well as recent and potential therapeutic approaches are reviewed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Complement Activation
  • Disease Progression
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Macular Degeneration / etiology
  • Macular Degeneration / pathology
  • Macular Degeneration / therapy*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Retinal Pigments / metabolism
  • Retinoids / metabolism
  • Toxins, Biological / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism


  • A2-E (N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine)
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Retinal Pigments
  • Retinoids
  • Toxins, Biological
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A