6-Shogaol from dried ginger inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB signaling

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Jun;7(6):627-38. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0420. Epub 2014 Apr 1.


Despite much recent progress, prostate cancer continues to represent a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in men. Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin neoplasm and second leading cause of death in men. 6-Shogaol (6-SHO), a potent bioactive compound in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. In the present study, the effect of 6-SHO on the growth of prostate cancer cells was investigated. 6-SHO effectively reduced survival and induced apoptosis of cultured human (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3) and mouse (HMVP2) prostate cancer cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that 6-SHO reduced constitutive and interleukin (IL)-6-induced STAT3 activation and inhibited both constitutive and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity in these cells. In addition, 6-SHO decreased the level of several STAT3 and NF-κB-regulated target genes at the protein level, including cyclin D1, survivin, and cMyc and modulated mRNA levels of chemokine, cytokine, cell cycle, and apoptosis regulatory genes (IL-7, CCL5, BAX, BCL2, p21, and p27). 6-SHO was more effective than two other compounds found in ginger, 6-gingerol, and 6-paradol at reducing survival of prostate cancer cells and reducing STAT3 and NF-κB signaling. 6-SHO also showed significant tumor growth inhibitory activity in an allograft model using HMVP2 cells. Overall, the current results suggest that 6-SHO may have potential as a chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent for prostate cancer and that further study of this compound is warranted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Catechols / therapeutic use*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects*
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Food, Preserved
  • Ginger* / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects


  • Catechols
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plant Extracts
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • shogaol