A role for G-CSF and GM-CSF in nonmyeloid cancers

Cancer Med. 2014 Aug;3(4):737-46. doi: 10.1002/cam4.239. Epub 2014 Apr 2.


Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) modulate progression of certain solid tumors. The G-CSF- or GM-CSF-secreting cancers, albeit not very common are, however, among the most rapidly advancing ones due to a cytokine-mediated immune suppression and angiogenesis. Similarly, de novo angiogenesis and vasculogenesis may complicate adjuvant use of recombinant G-CSF or GM-CSF thus possibly contributing to a cancer relapse. Rapid diagnostic tools to differentiate G-CSF- or GM-CSF-secreting cancers are not well developed therefore hindering efforts to individualize treatments for these patients. Given an increasing utilization of adjuvant G-/GM-CSF in cancer therapy, we aimed to summarize recent studies exploring their roles in pathophysiology of solid tumors and to provide insights into some complexities of their therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Bladder; G-CSF; GM-SF; bone; cancer; colorectal; glioma; lung; melanoma; metastasis; prostate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor