Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) modulate progression of certain solid tumors. The G-CSF- or GM-CSF-secreting cancers, albeit not very common are, however, among the most rapidly advancing ones due to a cytokine-mediated immune suppression and angiogenesis. Similarly, de novo angiogenesis and vasculogenesis may complicate adjuvant use of recombinant G-CSF or GM-CSF thus possibly contributing to a cancer relapse. Rapid diagnostic tools to differentiate G-CSF- or GM-CSF-secreting cancers are not well developed therefore hindering efforts to individualize treatments for these patients. Given an increasing utilization of adjuvant G-/GM-CSF in cancer therapy, we aimed to summarize recent studies exploring their roles in pathophysiology of solid tumors and to provide insights into some complexities of their therapeutic applications.
Keywords: Bladder; G-CSF; GM-SF; bone; cancer; colorectal; glioma; lung; melanoma; metastasis; prostate.
© 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.