Spread of antibiotic resistance is mediated by clonal lineages of bacteria that besides being resistant also possess other properties promoting their success. Some vaccines already in use, such as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, have had an effect on these successful clones, but at the same time have allowed for the expansion and resistance evolution of previously minor clones not covered by the vaccine. Since resistance frequently is horizontally transferred it will be difficult to generate a vaccine that covers all possible genetic lineages prone to develop resistance unless the vaccine target(s) is absolutely necessary for spread and/or disease development. Targeting the resistance mechanism itself by a vaccine is an interesting but hitherto unexplored approach.
Keywords: ESBL; Haemophilus influenzae; MRSA; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus pneumoniae; antibiotic resistance; bacterial vaccines; transpeptidases; β-Lactamases.