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. 2014 Jul 1;66(3):311-5.
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000154.

Antiretroviral Concentrations in Small Hair Samples as a Feasible Marker of Adherence in Rural Kenya

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Free PMC article

Antiretroviral Concentrations in Small Hair Samples as a Feasible Marker of Adherence in Rural Kenya

Matthew D Hickey et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

  • J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 May 1;69(1):e42

Abstract

Antiretroviral hair levels objectively quantify drug exposure over time and predict virologic responses. We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of collecting small hair samples in a rural Kenyan cohort. Ninety-five percentage of participants (354/373) donated hair. Although median self-reported adherence was 100% (interquartile range, 96%-100%), a wide range of hair concentrations likely indicates overestimation of self-reported adherence and the advantages of a pharmacologic adherence measure. Higher nevirapine hair concentrations observed in women and older adults require further study to unravel behavioral versus pharmacokinetic contributors. In resource-limited settings, hair antiretroviral levels may serve as a low-cost quantitative biomarker of adherence.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest and Sources of funding: This work was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) (RO1 AI098472 to M.G.), a Clinical Research Fellowship grant from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (MDH) and a UCSF School of Medicine Dean’s research fellowship (CRS). Additional funding support was provided to the Organic Health Response and Microclinic International by the Google Tides Foundation, the Mulago Foundation and Professor Ray Lifchez of UC Berkeley. For the remaining authors, none were declared.

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