Condom use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Jordan

J Int AIDS Soc. 2014 Apr 1;17(1):18573. doi: 10.7448/IAS.17.1.18573. eCollection 2014.


Introduction: To identify sociocultural determinants of self-reported condom use and HIV testing and examine variables related to accessibility, motivation and obstacles among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jordan.

Design: Cross-sectional study among MSM who were identified through services of a local non-governmental organization (NGO).

Methods: Respondents were studied with a semi-structured interview based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework. The vignette-based EMIC interview considered locally relevant HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, risk perception and perceived causes, as well as awareness of services and sources of support.

Results: Of the 97 respondents, 27% reported that they used a condom at last intercourse; 38% had been tested at least once for HIV. Positive determinants of condom use were higher education level, acknowledging MSM as a high-risk group, seeking advice from a medical doctor and the perceived causes "sex with prostitutes" and "sex with animals." Awareness of available treatment was a positive determinant of HIV testing. Blood transfusion as a perceived cause and asking advice from friends were negative determinants.

Conclusions: Jordanian MSM seem to be aware of the risk of HIV infection and effective prevention methods, and they are willing to be tested for HIV. Our findings addressed the importance of the sexual meaning of HIV/AIDS on the control of HIV/AIDS among MSM. More effective engagement of NGOs and MSM in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is needed, enlisting the support of medical doctors and community health workers. Peer education should be strategically strengthened. Political commitment is needed to mitigate social stigma.

Keywords: HIV test; HIV/AIDS; Jordan; MSM; Middle East and North Africa; condom.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Serodiagnosis / statistics & numerical data*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Condoms / statistics & numerical data*
  • Condoms / supply & distribution
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • HIV Infections / psychology
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology
  • Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Jordan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Young Adult