Purpose: Men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer have low knowledge of osteoporosis (OP) and engage in few healthy bone behaviors (HBBs). A multicomponent intervention was piloted in this population. Changes in OP knowledge, self-efficacy, health beliefs, and engagement in HBBs were evaluated.
Methods: A pre-post pilot study was performed in a convenience sample of men recruited from the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. Men were sent personalized letters explaining their dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results and fracture risk assessment with an OP-related education booklet. Participants completed questionnaires assessing OP knowledge, self-efficacy, health beliefs, and current engagement in HBBs at baseline (T1) and 3 months post-intervention (T2). Paired t tests and McNemar's test were used to assess changes in outcomes.
Results: A total of 148 men completed the study. There was an increase in OP knowledge (9.7 ± 4.3 to 11.4 ± 3.3, p < 0.0001) and feelings of susceptibility (16.5 ± 4.3 to 17.4 ± 4.7, p = 0.015), but a decrease in total self-efficacy (86.3 ± 22.9 to 81.0 ± 27.6, p = 0.007) from baseline to post-intervention. Men made appropriate changes in their overall daily calcium intake (p ≤ 0.001), and there was uptake of vitamin D supplementation from 44 % (n = 65) to 68 % (n = 99) (p < 0.0001). Men with bone loss (osteopenia or OP) had a greater change in susceptibility (1.9 ± 4.3 vs. -0.22 ± 4.2, p = 0.005) compared to men with normal bone density.
Conclusions: Our results provide preliminary evidence that a multicomponent intervention such as the one described can lead to increased knowledge and feelings of susceptibility regarding OP and can enhance uptake of some HBBs.