Transcriptional changes in organoculture of full-thickness human skin following topical application of all-trans retinoic acid

Int J Cosmet Sci. 2014 Jun;36(3):253-61. doi: 10.1111/ics.12121. Epub 2014 Mar 27.


In this study, we developed an organoculture of human skin to investigate the effect of topical applied all-trans retinoic acid using a gene array approach. We could by using this approach confirm previous studies on genes activated by RA in keratinocyte monocultures and also provide new insights on genes that are relevant to RA-activation in human skin. The results in the present study show this model represent a valuable pre-clinical model for studying the effects of retinoids in skin.

Keywords: acne; cell culture; dandruff; elisa; genomics; proteomics; rosacea; skin culture; striae skin physiology; structure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Middle Aged
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • RNA / chemistry
  • RNA / genetics
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin / metabolism*
  • Skin Physiological Phenomena / drug effects*
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • Tretinoin / pharmacology*
  • Young Adult


  • Tretinoin
  • RNA