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Review
, 21 (2), 234-68

Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection: Long-Term Neuropsychological Consequences and Challenges Ahead

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Review

Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection: Long-Term Neuropsychological Consequences and Challenges Ahead

Renee Smith et al. Child Neuropsychol.

Abstract

Over the past three decades, perinatal HIV infection in the United States has evolved from a fatal disease to a manageable chronic illness. As the majority of youth with perinatal HIV infection age into adolescence and adulthood, management of this stigmatizing, transmittable disease in the backdrop of a cadre of environmental stressors presents challenges beyond those of other chronic illnesses. The neurologic and neuropsychological consequences of this neurotropic virus have important implications for the successful navigation of responsibilities related to increasingly independent living of this aging population. This article will review the neurologic and neuropsychological consequences of perinatal HIV infection and concomitant factors in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and will provide an overview of the neuropathology, pathogenesis, neuroimaging findings, and treatment of perinatal HIV infection, as well as recommendations for service provision and future research.

Keywords: Adolescence; Neurobehavior; Neurocognition; Neuropathology; Perinatal HIV infection.

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