Autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell immunotherapy with cytokine-induced killer cells improves survival in gastric and colorectal cancer patients

PLoS One. 2014 Apr 3;9(4):e93886. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093886. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

Gastric and colorectal cancers (GC and CRC) have poor prognosis and are resistant to chemo- and/or radiotherapy. In the present study, the prophylactic effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination are evaluated on disease progression and clinical benefits in a group of 54 GC and CRC patients treated with DC immunotherapy combined with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells after surgery with or without chemo-radiotherapy. DCs were prepared from the mononuclear cells isolated from patients using IL-2/GM-CSF and loaded with tumor antigens; CIK cells were prepared by incubating peripheral blood lymphocytes with IL-2, IFN-γ, and CD3 antibodies. The DC/CIK therapy started 3 days after low-dose chemotherapy and was repeated 3-5 times in 2 weeks as one cycle with a total of 188.3 ± 79.8 × 10(6) DCs and 58.8 ± 22.3 × 10(8) CIK cells. Cytokine levels in patients' sera before and after treatments were measured and the follow-up was conducted for 98 months to determine disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The results demonstrate that all cytokines tested were elevated with significantly higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in both GC and CRC cohorts of DC/CIK treated patients. By Cox regression analysis, DC/CIK therapy reduced the risk of post-operative disease progression (p<0.01) with an increased OS (<0.01). These results demonstrate that in addition to chemo- and/or radiotherapy, DC/CIK immunotherapy is a potential effective approach in the control of tumor growth for post-operative GC and CRC patients.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / mortality
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / therapy*
  • Aged
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells / immunology*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / mortality
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • Stomach Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Cancer Vaccines

Grant support

The authors have no support or funding to report.