Impact of smoking on microalbuminuria and urinary albumin creatinine ratio in non-diabetic normotensive smokers

Indian J Nephrol. 2014 Mar;24(2):92-6. doi: 10.4103/0971-4065.127893.


Smoking is associated with an excessive morbidity and mortality from a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the effects of smoking on renal function study in non-diabetic, normotensive subjects. A community-based, prospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted on 120 subjects; 80 (66.66%) were smokers and 40 (33.33%) age matched non-smokers; with age range of 30 to 70 years. Measurement of fasting sugar, urea, creatinine, lipids and one time screening of urinary albumin and urinary creatinine was done. Smokers had significantly higher urinary albumin and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) (52.84 ± 46.42 mg/L, 93.98 ± 78.68 μg/mg) than non-smokers (19.25 ± 7.77 mg/L, 18.99 ± 6.65 μg/mg), respectively (P =< 0.001, P =< 0.001). Microalbuminuria and urinary ACR level were directly related to the amount of smoking (pack-years). Among smokers, 73 (91.25%) had microalbuminuria (>20 mg/L) and 64 (80%) had increased urinary ACR (>30 μg/mg). Smoker had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein level (36.66 ± 10.28 mg/dl) compared to non-smokers (41.22 ± 11.72 mg/dl) (P = 0.031). Urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride levels were comparable (p = NS). In conclusion, smokers have a 4-fold higher prevalence of microalbuminuria than non-smokers.

Keywords: Creatinine clearance; microalbuminuria; non-diabetic normotensive; smoker; urinary albumin creatinine ratio.