In mice, clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has revealed variations in repopulation characteristics. However, it is unclear whether similar properties apply in primates. Here, we examined this issue through tracking of thousands of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in rhesus macaques for up to 12 years. Approximately half of the clones analyzed contributed to long-term repopulation (over 3-10 years), arising in sequential groups and likely representing self-renewing HSCs. The remainder contributed primarily for the first year. The long-lived clones could be further subdivided into functional groups contributing primarily to myeloid, lymphoid, or both myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Over time, the 4%-10% of clones with robust dual lineage contribution predominated in repopulation. HSPCs expressing a CCR5 shRNA transgene behaved similarly to controls. Our study therefore documents HSPC behavior in a clinically relevant model over a long time frame and provides a substantial system-level data set that is a reference point for future work.
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