Mycobacterial infections in solid organ transplant recipients

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Sep;20 Suppl 7:89-101. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12641.


Mycobacterial infections represent a growing challenge for solid organ transplant recipients (SOT). The adverse effects of tuberculosis (TB) therapy present a major difficulty, due to the interactions with immunosuppressive drugs and direct drug toxicity. While TB may be donor-transmitted or community-acquired, it usually develops at a latent infection site in the recipient. Pre-transplant prevention efforts will improve transplant outcomes and avoid the complications associated with post-transplant diagnosis and treatment. The present review and consensus manuscript is based on the updated published information and expert recommendations. The current data about epidemiology, diagnosis, new regimens for the treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI), the experience with rifamycins for the treatment of active TB in the post-transplant period and the experience with isoniazid for LTBI in the liver transplant population, are also reviewed. We attempt to provide useful recommendations for each transplant period and problem concerning mycobacterial infections in SOT recipients.

Keywords: Latent tuberculosis infection; mycobacteria; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; solid organ transplantation; tuberculosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use
  • Drug Interactions
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Drug Therapy / methods
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis
  • Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology*
  • Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control*
  • Opportunistic Infections / therapy
  • Organ Transplantation*
  • Transplant Recipients*
  • Tuberculosis / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis / drug therapy*
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis / prevention & control


  • Antitubercular Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents