Background: Postprandial elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impairs endothelial function, which can initiate atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of bezafibrate on postprandial endothelial dysfunction and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Methods: Ten patients with metabolic syndrome were treated with 400 mg/day bezafibrate or untreated for 4 weeks in a randomized crossover study. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and lipid profiles were assessed during fasting and after consumption of a standardized snack. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol contents of lipoprotein fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results: Postprandial FMD decreased significantly and reached its lowest value 4 h after the cookie test in both the bezafibrate and control groups, but the relative change in FMD from baseline to minimum in the bezafibrate group was significantly smaller than that in the control group (-29.0 ± 5.9 vs. -42.9 ± 6.2%, p = 0.04). Bezafibrate significantly suppressed postprandial elevation of triglyceride (incremental area under the curve (AUC): 544 ± 65 vs. 1158 ± 283 mg h/dl, p = 0.02) and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (incremental AUC: 27.9 ± 3.5 vs. 72.3 ± 14.1 mg h/dl, p < 0.01). High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that postprandial triglyceride content of the chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein fractions was significantly lower in the bezafibrate group than in the control group (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Bezafibrate significantly decreased postprandial endothelial dysfunction, and elevations of both exogenous and endogenous triglycerides in patients with metabolic syndrome, suggesting that bezafibrate may have vascular protective effects in these patients.
Clinical trial registration: Unique Identifiers: UMIN000012557.