Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interactions as well as restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. The etiology of ASD is not well understood, although many factors have been associated with its pathogenesis, such genetic, neurological, environmental and immunological factors. Several studies have reported the production of numerous autoantibodies that react with specific brain proteins and brain tissues in autistic children and alter the function of the attacked brains tissue. In addition, the potential role of maternal autoantibodies to the fatal brain in the etiology of some cases of autism has also been reported. Identification and understanding of the role of brain autoantibodies as biological biomarkers may allow earlier detection of ASD, lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of ASD and have important therapeutic implications.