Regulatory T Cells in Autoimmune Neuroinflammation

Immunol Rev. 2014 May;259(1):231-44. doi: 10.1111/imr.12169.

Abstract

Regulatory T cells are the central element for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Several subtypes of regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described, and most of them belong to the CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cell lineage. These specific subtypes can be discriminated according to phenotype and function. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)-expressing natural Treg cells (Tregs) and IL-10-producing, T-regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1) are the best-studied types of CD4(+) regulatory T cells in humans and experimental animal models. It was shown that they play a crucial role during autoimmune neuroinflammation. Both cells types seem to be particularly important for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we discuss the role of CD4(+) regulatory T cells in autoimmune neuroinflammation with an emphasis on Tregs and Tr1 cells in MS.

Keywords: FoxP3; Tr1; Treg; autoimmunity; multiple sclerosis; regulatory T cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / genetics
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / metabolism
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Multiple Sclerosis / genetics
  • Multiple Sclerosis / immunology
  • Multiple Sclerosis / metabolism
  • Neurogenic Inflammation / genetics
  • Neurogenic Inflammation / immunology*
  • Neurogenic Inflammation / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / metabolism

Substances

  • Forkhead Transcription Factors