Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology

J Psychopharmacol. 2014 May;28(5):403-39. doi: 10.1177/0269881114525674. Epub 2014 Apr 8.


This revision of the 2005 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for the evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders provides an update on key steps in diagnosis and clinical management, including recognition, acute treatment, longer-term treatment, combination treatment, and further approaches for patients who have not responded to first-line interventions. A consensus meeting involving international experts in anxiety disorders reviewed the main subject areas and considered the strength of supporting evidence and its clinical implications. The guidelines are based on available evidence, were constructed after extensive feedback from participants, and are presented as recommendations to aid clinical decision-making in primary, secondary and tertiary medical care. They may also serve as a source of information for patients, their carers, and medicines management and formulary committees.

Keywords: Anticonvulsants; antidepressants; antipsychotics; anxiety disorders; anxiolytics; benzodiazepines; cognitive behaviour therapy; evidence-based guidelines; generalised anxiety disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; panic disorder; post-traumatic stress disorder; pregabalin; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; separation anxiety disorder; serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor; social anxiety disorder; specific phobia; treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anxiety Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Decision Making
  • Delivery of Health Care / methods
  • Evidence-Based Medicine / methods
  • Humans
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder / drug therapy*
  • Psychopharmacology / methods
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / drug therapy*


  • Antidepressive Agents