Left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with adverse prognosis. It is becoming increasingly clear that circulating miRNAs could be promising biomarkers for various pathological processes in the heart, including myocardial infarction, myocardial remodeling and progression to heart failure. In the present study, a total of 359 consecutive patients were recruited. Plasma samples were collected on admission. Echocardiographic studies were performed during the admission and at six months follow-up after AMI. Remodeling was defined as an at least 10% increase from baseline in the left ventricular end-diastolic volume. Plasma miRNA levels were assessed for association with six months mortality or development of heart failure. Results showed that levels of plasma miR-208b and miR-34a were significantly higher in patients with remodeling than those without. Increased miRNA levels were strongly associated with increased risk of mortality or heart failure within six months for miR-208b (OR 17.91, 95% confidence interval=2.07-98.81, p=0.003), miR-34a (OR 4.18, 95% confidence interval=1.36-12.83, p=0.012) and combination of the two miRNAs (OR 18.73, 95% confidence interval=1.96-101.23, p=0.000). The two miRNA panels reclassified a significant proportion of patients with a net reclassification improvement of 11.7% (p=0.025) and an integrated discrimination improvement of 7.7% (p=0.002). These results demonstrated that circulating miR-208b and miR-34a could be useful biomarkers for predicting left ventricular remodeling after AMI, and the miRNA levels are associated with increased risk of mortality or heart failure.