Recommended implementation of arterial spin-labeled perfusion MRI for clinical applications: A consensus of the ISMRM perfusion study group and the European consortium for ASL in dementia

Magn Reson Med. 2015 Jan;73(1):102-16. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25197. Epub 2014 Apr 8.


This review provides a summary statement of recommended implementations of arterial spin labeling (ASL) for clinical applications. It is a consensus of the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ASL in Dementia consortium, both of whom met to reach this consensus in October 2012 in Amsterdam. Although ASL continues to undergo rapid technical development, we believe that current ASL methods are robust and ready to provide useful clinical information, and that a consensus statement on recommended implementations will help the clinical community to adopt a standardized approach. In this review, we describe the major considerations and trade-offs in implementing an ASL protocol and provide specific recommendations for a standard approach. Our conclusion is that as an optimal default implementation, we recommend pseudo-continuous labeling, background suppression, a segmented three-dimensional readout without vascular crushing gradients, and calculation and presentation of both label/control difference images and cerebral blood flow in absolute units using a simplified model.

Keywords: arterial spin labeling; cerebral blood flow; perfusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Brain / physiopathology*
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation
  • Dementia / diagnosis*
  • Dementia / physiopathology*
  • European Union
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography / standards*
  • Neurology / standards*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Spin Labels


  • Spin Labels