Gut-associated lymphoid tissues are responsible for the generation of IgA-secreting cells. However, the function of the caecal patch, a lymphoid tissue in the appendix, remains unknown. Here we analyse the role of the caecal patch using germ-free mice colonized with intestinal bacteria after appendectomy. Appendectomized mice show delayed accumulation of IgA(+) cells in the large intestine, but not the small intestine, after colonization. Decreased colonic IgA(+) cells correlate with altered faecal microbiota composition. Experiments using photoconvertible Kaede-expressing mice or adoptive transfer show that the caecal patch IgA(+) cells migrate to the large and small intestines, whereas Peyer's patch cells are preferentially recruited to the small intestine. IgA(+) cells in the caecal patch express higher levels of CCR10. Dendritic cells in the caecal patch, but not Peyer's patches, induce CCR10 on cocultured B cells. Thus, the caecal patch is a major site for generation of IgA-secreting cells that migrate to the large intestine.