The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry.
Keywords: CDV; Canine distemper virus; Epithelial cell; Hemagglutinin; Nectin-4; PVRL4; Poliovirus receptor-like protein-4; Receptor; Syncytia formation; V domain; Virus entry.
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