Immunological alterations and associated diseases in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally co-infected with SIV and STLV

Virology. 2014 Apr;454-455:184-96. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.02.019. Epub 2014 Mar 7.


Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates.

Keywords: Associated diseases; Cell line; Co-infection; Immune system; Mandrillus sphinx; SIV; STLV; Viral load.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Coinfection / complications
  • Coinfection / immunology
  • Coinfection / veterinary*
  • Coinfection / virology
  • Deltaretrovirus Infections / complications
  • Deltaretrovirus Infections / immunology
  • Deltaretrovirus Infections / veterinary*
  • Deltaretrovirus Infections / virology
  • Mandrillus
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications*
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology*
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
  • Viral Load