Transperineal sector prostate biopsies: a local anesthetic outpatient technique

Urology. 2014 Jun;83(6):1344-9. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2014.02.008. Epub 2014 Apr 13.


Objective: To describe our technique and determine the feasibility and tolerability of transperineal template prostate (TP) biopsies under local anesthesia (LA).

Methods: Fifty consecutive patients underwent TP biopsies under LA for investigation of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or risk stratification as part of our active surveillance protocol. Tolerability was evaluated with a visual analog scale assessing probe discomfort, LA infiltration, and the biopsy procurement. Patients were also asked if they would have the procedure again, and in those who had undergone previous transrectal biopsies, how the TP technique compared. Pathologic data, clinical outcomes, and complications were recorded at 2 weeks.

Results: Mean age was 62.8 years (standard deviation [SD], 6.34 years) and the mean prostate-specific antigen level was 8.49 ng/mL (SD, 6.36 ng/mL). Mean prostate volume was 48.2 mL (SD, 19.4 mL). Mean visual analog scale scores for discomfort caused by the ultrasound probe, LA injections, and biopsies were 3.08 (SD, 1.64), 3.29 (SD, 1.13), and 2.88 (SD, 1.28), respectively. Thirty-four of 50 men (68%) had positive histology, 26 men had Gleason score≤3+4, 5 men had Gleason score≥4+3, and 3 had recurrent adenocarcinoma after radiotherapy. There were 2 complications: 1 Clavien score 1 and 1 Clavien score 3a.

Conclusion: LA TP biopsies are well tolerated, acceptable, and feasible when carried out within an outpatient setting.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Ambulatory Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood*
  • Biopsy / methods*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain Measurement*
  • Pain Threshold
  • Patient Satisfaction / statistics & numerical data
  • Perineum
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Tumor Burden


  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen