Dyslipidemia is common and is associated with the highest population-attributable risk for cardiovascular disease. Of various cardiovascular preventive therapies, the evidence from randomized controlled trials supporting the importance of aggressive lipid lowering is the most robust, particularly for statins. Despite the use of proven therapies, cardiovascular disease event rates remain relatively high, underpinning the development of novel therapies. In addition to testing new drugs to reduce low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, there has been a major focus on treatments that can favorably influence high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This review provides an overview of the important relationship between lipids and cardiovascular disease, the lipid-modifying therapeutic approaches to reducing cardiovascular disease, new guidelines and recommendations, and the challenges ahead for the treatment of dyslipidemia, particularly whether statins will remain at the forefront of recommended therapies.