Fibroblasts, which are traditionally recognized as a quiescent cell responsible for extracellular matrix production, are more and more appreciated as an active key player of the immune system. This review describes how fibroblasts and immune cells reciprocally influence the pathogenesis of fibrosis. An overview is given how fibroblasts are triggered by components of the innate and adaptive immunity on the one hand and how fibroblasts modulate immune cell behaviour via conditioning the cellular and cytokine microenvironment on the other hand. Finally, latest insights into the role of cardiac fibroblasts in the orchestration of inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart, and their impact on heart failure, are outlined.
Keywords: Fibroblast; Heart failure; Innate and adaptive immune response; Myofibroblast.