Cytokine storm plays a direct role in the morbidity and mortality from influenza virus infection and is chemically treatable with a single sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist molecule

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2014;378:129-47. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-05879-5_6.

Abstract

Cytokine storm defines a dysregulation of and an excessively exaggerated immune response most often accompanying selected viral infections and several autoimmune diseases. Newly emerging and re-emerging infections of the respiratory tract, especially influenza, SARS, and hantavirus post considerable medical problems. Their morbidities and mortalities are often a direct result of cytokine storm. This chapter visits primarily influenza virus infection and resultant cytokine storm. It provides the compelling evidence that illuminates cytokine storm in influenza pathogenesis and the clear findings that cytokine storm is chemically tractable by therapy directed toward sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulation, specifically S1P1R agonist therapy. The mechanism(s) of how S1P1R signaling works and the pathways involved are subjects of this review.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Influenza, Human / drug therapy*
  • Influenza, Human / immunology
  • Influenza, Human / mortality*
  • Influenza, Human / virology
  • Lysophospholipids / agonists*
  • Lysophospholipids / therapeutic use*
  • Orthomyxoviridae / drug effects*
  • Orthomyxoviridae / immunology
  • Sphingosine / agonists
  • Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Sphingosine / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Cytokines
  • Lysophospholipids
  • sphingosine 1-phosphate
  • Sphingosine