Sleep disturbances associated with nocturia cause direct, indirect, and intangible costs. Direct costs are primarily associated with injuries from falling. Indirect costs are associated with loss of work productivity. Intangible costs include emotional distress, behavioral modifications, feelings of loss of control, poor mood, and cancellation of planned activities. A study that compared the number of falls for patients with varying numbers of voids per night demonstrated that the incremental risk (population attributable risk [PAR]) of falling as a result of nocturia (≥ 2 voids compared with ≤ 1 void) was 16.2%. Using the 16.2% PAR, the annual direct cost of nocturia in the USA was estimated at $1.5 billion. An analysis in the EU-15 countries estimated the total annual cost of hospitalizations for hip fracture due to severe nocturia to be approximately € 1 billion. Studies have shown that periods of sick leave are significantly greater in both men and women who have more nocturnal voids, with an estimated annual indirect cost of nocturia of $61 billion in the USA. A similar European analysis showed an estimated annual cost of lost work productivity due to nocturia of € 29 billion in the EU-15. The intangible personal costs of nocturia are related to diminished quality of life and overall health status. High-quality articles on the cost of illness associated with nocturia, as well as cost-benefit analyses of nocturia treatment, are generally lacking.
Keywords: burden; cost; falls; nocturia; pharmacoeconomics; productivity.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.