In recent years, emerging evidence has linked vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium and bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive decline. The importance of vitamin D3 in reducing the risk of these diseases continues to increase due to the fact that an increasing portion of the population in developed countries has a significant vitamin D deficiency. The older population is at an especially high risk for vitamin D deficiency due to the decreased cutaneous synthesis and dietary intake of vitamin D. Recent studies have confirmed an association between cognitive impairment, dementia, and vitamin D deficiency. There is a need for well-designed randomized trials to assess the benefits of vitamin D and lifestyle interventions in persons with mild cognitive impairment and dementia.
Keywords: 25(OH)D level; Alzheimer’s disease; cognition; mild cognitive impairment; vascular dementia; vitamin D.