Christoph Steininger and colleagues explore how multiple infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases have been associated with changes in the intestinal microbiome, although a cause-effect relationship is often difficult to establish. Integration of metagenomics into clinical medicine is a challenge, and the authors highlight clinical approaches that are of high priority for the useful medical application of metagenomics. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Intestines / microbiology*
The Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology (ACIB) contribution was supported by FFG, BMWFJ, BMVIT, ZIT GmbH, Zukunftsstiftung Tirol and Land Steiermark within the Austrian COMET program FFG Grant 824186 (BH, GGT) and the EU COST Action SeqAhead, EC Grant BM1006 (GGT). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.