In this study, the influence of intratumoral morphological heterogeneity of breast cancer on neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) efficiency was investigated. In particular, we analysed the association of NAC response and pre- and post-NAC expression of the main multidrug resistance (MDR) genes--ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC5, ABCG1, and ABCG2, with the presence of different morphological structures in breast tumors. In addition, the expression of MDR genes was investigated in different morphological structures and in their microenvironment by comparing probes obtained using laser microdissection. The results of this study showed that tumors with alveolar structures were more frequently NAC-nonresponsive than cases without this structural type (p = 0.0028, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.014). The presence of trabecular structures in breast tumors was also associated with chemoresistance (p = 0.0272, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.136). High expression of MDR genes was not found in alveolar structures (including their microenvironment) and in tumors containing this structural type. In contrast, more active MDR genes and expression of the ABCB1 gene were found only in trabecular structures. Taken together, our data indicate that breast tumors with alveolar structures possess resistance to NAC, which is not related to high expression of MDR genes, whereas chemoresistance of tumors with trabecular structures can depend on the expression level of ABCB1.