The role of late I Na in development of cardiac arrhythmias

Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2014;221:137-68. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-41588-3_7.

Abstract

Late I Na is an integral part of the sodium current, which persists long after the fast-inactivating component. The magnitude of the late I Na is relatively small in all species and in all types of cardiomyocytes as compared with the amplitude of the fast sodium current, but it contributes significantly to the shape and duration of the action potential. This late component had been shown to increase in several acquired or congenital conditions, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and heart failure, or due to mutations in SCN5A, which encodes the α-subunit of the sodium channel, as well as in channel-interacting proteins, including multiple β subunits and anchoring proteins. Patients with enhanced late I Na exhibit the type-3 long QT syndrome (LQT3) characterized by high propensity for the life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, such as Torsade de Pointes (TdP), as well as for atrial fibrillation. There are several distinct mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis due to abnormal late I Na, including abnormal automaticity, early and delayed after depolarization-induced triggered activity, and dramatic increase of ventricular dispersion of repolarization. Many local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agents have a higher potency to block late I Na as compared with fast I Na. Several novel compounds, including ranolazine, GS-458967, and F15845, appear to be the most selective inhibitors of cardiac late I Na reported to date. Selective inhibition of late I Na is expected to be an effective strategy for correcting these acquired and congenital channelopathies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / drug therapy
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / genetics
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / metabolism*
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / physiopathology
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Heart Rate* / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / drug effects
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism*
  • Phenotype
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sodium / metabolism*
  • Sodium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use
  • Sodium Channels / drug effects
  • Sodium Channels / genetics
  • Sodium Channels / metabolism*

Substances

  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Sodium Channel Blockers
  • Sodium Channels
  • Sodium