Imaging the lipid-phase-dependent pore formation of equinatoxin II in droplet interface bilayers

Biophys J. 2014 Apr 15;106(8):1630-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.11.4507.


Using phase-separated droplet interface bilayers, we observe membrane binding and pore formation of a eukaryotic cytolysin, Equinatoxin II (EqtII). EqtII activity is known to depend on the presence of sphingomyelin in the target membrane and is enhanced by lipid phase separation. By imaging the ionic flux through individual pores in vitro, we observe that EqtII pores form predominantly within the liquid-disordered phase. We observe preferential binding of labeled EqtII at liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered domain boundaries before it accumulates in the liquid-disordered phase.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chickens
  • Cnidarian Venoms / chemistry*
  • Lipid Bilayers / chemistry*
  • Lipid Droplets / chemistry*
  • Molecular Imaging / methods*
  • Porosity
  • Sheep


  • Cnidarian Venoms
  • Lipid Bilayers
  • equinatoxin