Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is found naturally in coastal saltwater. In the United States, Vp causes an estimated 35,000 domestically acquired foodborne infections annually, of which most are attributable to consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish. Illness typically consists of mild to moderate gastroenteritis, although severe infection can occur. Demographic, clinical, and exposure information (including traceback information on implicated seafood) for all laboratory-confirmed illnesses are reported by state health departments to CDC through the Cholera and Other Vibrio Surveillance system. Vp isolates are distinguished by serotyping (>90 serotypes have been described) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).