Rice Consumption Is Not Associated With Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity or Mortality in Japanese Men and Women: A Large Population-Based, Prospective Cohort Study

Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100(1):199-207. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.079038. Epub 2014 Apr 16.


Background: Rice consumption has been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but its relation with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is limited.

Objective: We examined the association between rice consumption and risk of CVD incidence and mortality in a Japanese population.

Design: This was a prospective study in 91,223 Japanese men and women aged 40-69 y in whom rice consumption was determined and updated from 3 self-administered food-frequency questionnaires, each 5 y apart. Follow-up for incidence was from 1990 to 2009 in cohort I and 1993 to 2007 in cohort II and for mortality was from 1990 to 2009 in cohort I and 1993 to 2009 in cohort II. HRs and 95% CIs of CVD incidence and mortality were calculated according to quintiles of cumulative average rice consumption.

Results: In 15-18 y of follow-up, we ascertained 4395 incident cases of stroke, 1088 incident cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and 2705 deaths from CVD. Rice consumption was not associated with risk of incident stroke or IHD; the multivariable HR (95% CI) in the highest compared with lowest rice consumption quintiles was 1.01 (0.90, 1.14) for total stroke and 1.08 (0.84, 1.38) for IHD. Similarly, there was no association between rice consumption and risk of mortality from CVD; the HR (95% CI) for mortality from total CVD was 0.97 (0.84, 1.13). There were no interactions with sex or effect modifications by body mass index for any endpoint.

Conclusion: Rice consumption is not associated with risk of CVD morbidity or mortality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Diet*
  • Endpoint Determination
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morbidity
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Oryza / adverse effects*
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires