The spectrum of oculocutaneous disease: Part II. Neoplastic and drug-related causes of oculocutaneous disease

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 May;70(5):821.e1-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2013.12.019.


There are a multitude of diseases that commonly affect both the skin and the eye. Part II of this 2-part series reviews the oculocutaneous manifestations of neoplasms, both benign and malignant, and adverse drug reactions affecting the skin and the eye. Though rare, a number of neoplasms that primarily involve the skin, such as melanoma and basal cell carcinoma, can metastasize to the eye, leading to permanent damage if not properly treated. In addition, periocular neoplasms can irritate the conjunctiva and lid, reducing a patient's ability to see clearly. Neoplastic diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and multiple myeloma, can also lead to permanent changes in the eye if not discovered and managed promptly. Furthermore, there are a multitude of drugs, including those commonly used by dermatologists, which can result in permanent damage to the eye. With proper knowledge of the ocular manifestations and treatment recommendations described in this 2-part series, dermatologists with the assistance of their ophthalmology colleagues can help avoid the complications, including permanent blindness, associated with infectious, inflammatory, genetic, neoplastic, and drug-related conditions.

Keywords: EGFR; PHACES; Stevens-Johnson Syndrome; Sturge Weber Syndrome; basal cell nevus syndrome; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; drug reactions; inhibitormultiple myeloma; oculocutaneous; periocular neoplasm; toxic epidermal necrolysis; xeroderma pigmentosum.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Coarctation / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • Comorbidity
  • Cyclosporine / adverse effects
  • Cyclosporine / therapeutic use
  • Dermatologic Agents / adverse effects
  • Eye Abnormalities / diagnosis
  • Eye Diseases / chemically induced
  • Eye Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Eye Diseases / etiology*
  • Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Eyelid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Mohs Surgery
  • Multiple Myeloma / pathology
  • Multiple Myeloma / therapy
  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes / diagnosis
  • Retinoids / adverse effects
  • Retinoids / therapeutic use
  • Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • Skin Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Syndrome
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Dermatologic Agents
  • Retinoids
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Cyclosporine

Supplementary concepts

  • PHACE association