Objective: To determine the effects of dietary-induced weight loss (D) and weight loss plus exercise (D + E) compared to exercise alone (E) on bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA).
Design: Data come from 284 older (66.0 ± 6.2 years), overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) 33.4 ± 3.7 kg/m2), adults with knee OA enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) study. Participants were randomized to 18 months of walking and strength training (E; n = 95), dietary-induced weight loss targeting 10% of baseline weight (D; n = 88) or a combination of the two (D + E; n = 101). Body weight and composition (DXA), regional BMD, were obtained at baseline and 18 months.
Results: E, D, and D + E groups lost 1.3 ± 4.5 kg, 9.1 ± 8.6 kg and 10.4 ± 8.0 kg, respectively (P < 0.01). Significant treatment effects were observed for BMD in both hip and femoral neck regions, with the D and D + E groups showing similar relative losses compared to E (both P < 0.01). Despite reduced BMD, fewer overall participants had T-scores indicative of osteoporosis after intervention (9 at 18 months vs 10 at baseline). Within the D and D + E groups, changes in hip and femoral neck, but not spine, BMD correlated positively with changes in body weight (r = 0.21 and 0.54 respectively, both P ≤ 0.01).
Conclusions: Weight loss via an intensive dietary intervention, with or without exercise, results in bone loss at the hip and femoral neck in overweight and obese, older adults with OA. Although the exercise intervention did not attenuate weight loss-associated reductions in BMD, classification of osteoporosis and osteopenia remained unchanged.
Clinical trial registration number: NCT00381290.
Keywords: Bone density; Exercise; Obesity; Osteoarthritis; Weight loss.
Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.