Objective: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at risk to develop RA-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). This retrospective study aimed to investigate the potential association of the positivity of serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP2) and rheumatoid factor (RF) with RA-ILD in RA patients.
Methods: A total of 285 RA patients were recruited at the inpatient service of Peking Union Medical College Hospital in China between 2004 and 2013. Individual patients were evaluated for the evidence of ILD. The concentrations of serum anti-CCP2 and RF in individual patients were measured. The potential risk factors for ILD in RA patients were assessed by univariate and multivariate models.
Results: There were 71 RA patients with RA-ILD, accounting for 24.9% in this population. The positive rates of anti-CCP2 and RF in the patients with RA-ILD were significantly higher than that in the patients with RA-only (88.7% vs. 67.3%, p<0.001; 84.5% vs. 70.6%, p = 0.02, respectively). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that RA patients with positive serum anti-CCP2, but not RF, were associated with an increased risk of ILD (crude odds ratio [cOR] 3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-8.43, p<0.001; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.50, 95% CI 1.52-8.04, p<0.001).
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that positive serum anti-CCP2, but not RF, may be associated with RA-ILD in RA patients.